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类型【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1:伍洪祥 大小:yh6lxzTZ60640KB 下载:eSDygv2x68342次
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日期:2020-08-09 05:36:48
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山田义

1.【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1  Troilus had informed his household, that if at any time he was missing, he had gone to worship at a certain temple of Apollo, "and first to see the holy laurel quake, or that the godde spake out of the tree." So, at the changing of the moon, when "the welkin shope him for to rain," [when the sky was preparing to rain] Pandarus went to invite his niece to supper; solemnly assuring her that Troilus was out of the town -- though all the time he was safely shut up, till midnight, in "a little stew," whence through a hole he joyously watched the arrival of his mistress and her fair niece Antigone, with half a score of her women. After supper Pandaras did everything to amuse his niece; "he sung, he play'd, he told a tale of Wade;" <52> at last she would take her leave; but
2.  Chaucer at this period possessed also other qualities fitted to recommend him to favour in a Court like that of Edward III. Urry describes him, on the authority of a portrait, as being then "of a fair beautiful complexion, his lips red and full, his size of a just medium, and his port and air graceful and majestic. So," continues the ardent biographer, -- "so that every ornament that could claim the approbation of the great and fair, his abilities to record the valour of the one, and celebrate the beauty of the other, and his wit and gentle behaviour to converse with both, conspired to make him a complete courtier." If we believe that his "Court of Love" had received such publicity as the literary media of the time allowed in the somewhat narrow and select literary world -- not to speak of "Troilus and Cressida," which, as Lydgate mentions it first among Chaucer's works, some have supposed to be a youthful production -- we find a third and not less powerful recommendation to the favour of the great co- operating with his learning and his gallant bearing. Elsewhere <2> reasons have been shown for doubt whether "Troilus and Cressida" should not be assigned to a later period of Chaucer's life; but very little is positively known about the dates and sequence of his various works. In the year 1386, being called as witness with regard to a contest on a point of heraldry between Lord Scrope and Sir Robert Grosvenor, Chaucer deposed that he entered on his military career in 1359. In that year Edward III invaded France, for the third time, in pursuit of his claim to the French crown; and we may fancy that, in describing the embarkation of the knights in "Chaucer's Dream", the poet gained some of the vividness and stir of his picture from his recollections of the embarkation of the splendid and well- appointed royal host at Sandwich, on board the eleven hundred transports provided for the enterprise. In this expedition the laurels of Poitiers were flung on the ground; after vainly attempting Rheims and Paris, Edward was constrained, by cruel weather and lack of provisions, to retreat toward his ships; the fury of the elements made the retreat more disastrous than an overthrow in pitched battle; horses and men perished by thousands, or fell into the hands of the pursuing French. Chaucer, who had been made prisoner at the siege of Retters, was among the captives in the possession of France when the treaty of Bretigny -- the "great peace" -- was concluded, in May, 1360. Returning to England, as we may suppose, at the peace, the poet, ere long, fell into another and a pleasanter captivity; for his marriage is generally believed to have taken place shortly after his release from foreign durance. He had already gained the personal friendship and favour of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the King's son; the Duke, while Earl of Richmond, had courted, and won to wife after a certain delay, Blanche, daughter and co-heiress of Henry Duke of Lancaster; and Chaucer is by some believed to have written "The Assembly of Fowls" to celebrate the wooing, as he wrote "Chaucer's Dream" to celebrate the wedding, of his patron. The marriage took place in 1359, the year of Chaucer's expedition to France; and as, in "The Assembly of Fowls," the formel or female eagle, who is supposed to represent the Lady Blanche, begs that her choice of a mate may be deferred for a year, 1358 and 1359 have been assigned as the respective dates of the two poems already mentioned. In the "Dream," Chaucer prominently introduces his own lady-love, to whom, after the happy union of his patron with the Lady Blanche, he is wedded amid great rejoicing; and various expressions in the same poem show that not only was the poet high in favour with the illustrious pair, but that his future wife had also peculiar claims on their regard. She was the younger daughter of Sir Payne Roet, a native of Hainault, who had, like many of his countrymen, been attracted to England by the example and patronage of Queen Philippa. The favourite attendant on the Lady Blanche was her elder sister Katherine: subsequently married to Sir Hugh Swynford, a gentleman of Lincolnshire; and destined, after the death of Blanche, to be in succession governess of her children, mistress of John of Gaunt, and lawfully-wedded Duchess of Lancaster. It is quite sufficient proof that Chaucer's position at Court was of no mean consequence, to find that his wife, the sister of the future Duchess of Lancaster, was one of the royal maids of honour, and even, as Sir Harris Nicolas conjectures, a god-daughter of the Queen -- for her name also was Philippa.
3.  THE REEVE'S TALE.
4.  10. "For as to me is lever none nor lother, I n'am withholden yet with neither n'other." i.e For as neither is more liked or disliked by me, I am not bound by, holden to, either the one or the other.
5.  10. The knights resolved that they would quit their castles and houses of stone for humble huts.
6.  And them she gave her mebles* and her thing, *goods And to the Pope Urban betook* them tho;** *commended **then And said, "I aske this of heaven's king, To have respite three dayes and no mo', To recommend to you, ere that I go, These soules, lo; and that *I might do wirch* *cause to be made* Here of mine house perpetually a church."

计划指导

1.  If he could only know this lady, he would serve and obey her with all benignity; but if his destiny were otherwise, he would gladly love and serve his lady, whosoever she might be. He called on Venus for help to possess his queen and heart's life, and vowed daily war with Diana: "that goddess chaste I keepen [care] in no wise to serve; a fig for all her chastity!" Then he rose and went his way, passing by a rich and beautiful shrine, which, Philobone informed him, was the sepulchre of Pity. "A tender creature," she said,
2.  "Touching thy letter, thou art wise enough, I wot thou *n'ilt it dignely endite* *wilt not write it haughtily* Or make it with these argumentes tough, Nor scrivener-like, nor craftily it write; Beblot it with thy tears also a lite;* *little And if thou write a goodly word all soft, Though it be good, rehearse it not too oft.
3.  Penitence may be likened to a tree, having its root in contrition, biding itself in the heart as a tree-root does in the earth; out of this root springs a stalk, that bears branches and leaves of confession, and fruit of satisfaction. Of this root also springs a seed of grace, which is mother of all security, and this seed is eager and hot; and the grace of this seed springs of God, through remembrance on the day of judgment and on the pains of hell. The heat of this seed is the love of God, and the desire of everlasting joy; and this heat draws the heart of man to God, and makes him hate his sin. Penance is the tree of life to them that receive it. In penance or contrition man shall understand four things: what is contrition; what are the causes that move a man to contrition; how he should be contrite; and what contrition availeth to the soul. Contrition is the heavy and grievous sorrow that a man receiveth in his heart for his sins, with earnest purpose to confess and do penance, and never more to sin. Six causes ought to move a man to contrition: 1. He should remember him of his sins; 2. He should reflect that sin putteth a man in great thraldom, and all the greater the higher is the estate from which he falls; 3. He should dread the day of doom and the horrible pains of hell; 4. The sorrowful remembrance of the good deeds that man hath omitted to do here on earth, and also the good that he hath lost, ought to make him have contrition; 5. So also ought the remembrance of the passion that our Lord Jesus Christ suffered for our sins; 6. And so ought the hope of three things, that is to say, forgiveness of sin, the gift of grace to do well, and the glory of heaven with which God shall reward man for his good deeds. -- All these points the Parson illustrates and enforces at length; waxing especially eloquent under the third head, and plainly setting forth the sternly realistic notions regarding future punishments that were entertained in the time of Chaucer:-] <3>
4.  Eke each at other threw the flowers bright, The primerose, the violet, and the gold; So then, as I beheld the royal sight, My lady gan me suddenly behold, And with a true love, plighted many a fold, She smote me through the very heart *as blive;* *straightway* And Venus yet I thank I am alive.
5.  He might sue and serve, and wax pale, and green, and dead, without murmuring in any wise; but whereas he desired her hastily to lean to love, he was unwise, and must cease that language. For some had been at Court for twenty years, and might not obtain their mistresses' favour; therefore she marvelled that he was so bold as to treat of love with her. Philogenet, on this, broke into pitiful lamentation; bewailing the hour in which he was born, and assuring the unyielding lady that the frosty grave and cold must be his bed, unless she relented.
6.  Lordings, right thus, as ye have understand, *Bare I stiffly mine old husbands on hand,* *made them believe* That thus they saiden in their drunkenness; And all was false, but that I took witness On Jenkin, and upon my niece also. O Lord! the pain I did them, and the woe, 'Full guilteless, by Godde's sweete pine;* *pain For as a horse I coulde bite and whine; I coulde plain,* an'** I was in the guilt, *complain **even though Or elles oftentime I had been spilt* *ruined Whoso first cometh to the nilll, first grint;* *is ground I plained first, so was our war y-stint.* *stopped They were full glad to excuse them full blive* *quickly Of things that they never *aguilt their live.* *were guilty in their lives* Of wenches would I *beare them on hand,* *falsely accuse them* When that for sickness scarcely might they stand, Yet tickled I his hearte for that he Ween'd* that I had of him so great cherte:** *though **affection<16> I swore that all my walking out by night Was for to espy wenches that he dight:* *adorned Under that colour had I many a mirth. For all such wit is given us at birth; Deceit, weeping, and spinning, God doth give To women kindly, while that they may live. *naturally And thus of one thing I may vaunte me, At th' end I had the better in each degree, By sleight, or force, or by some manner thing, As by continual murmur or grudging,* *complaining Namely* a-bed, there hadde they mischance, *especially There would I chide, and do them no pleasance: I would no longer in the bed abide, If that I felt his arm over my side, Till he had made his ransom unto me, Then would I suffer him do his nicety.* *folly <17> And therefore every man this tale I tell, Win whoso may, for all is for to sell; With empty hand men may no hawkes lure; For winning would I all his will endure, And make me a feigned appetite, And yet in bacon* had I never delight: *i.e. of Dunmow <9> That made me that I ever would them chide. For, though the Pope had sitten them beside, I would not spare them at their owen board, For, by my troth, I quit* them word for word *repaid As help me very God omnipotent, Though I right now should make my testament I owe them not a word, that is not quit* *repaid I brought it so aboute by my wit, That they must give it up, as for the best Or elles had we never been in rest. For, though he looked as a wood* lion, *furious Yet should he fail of his conclusion. Then would I say, "Now, goode lefe* tak keep** *dear **heed How meekly looketh Wilken oure sheep! Come near, my spouse, and let me ba* thy cheek *kiss <18> Ye shoulde be all patient and meek, And have a *sweet y-spiced* conscience, *tender, nice* Since ye so preach of Jobe's patience. Suffer alway, since ye so well can preach, And but* ye do, certain we shall you teach* *unless That it is fair to have a wife in peace. One of us two must bowe* doubteless: *give way And since a man is more reasonable Than woman is, ye must be suff'rable. What aileth you to grudge* thus and groan? *complain Is it for ye would have my [love] <14> alone? Why, take it all: lo, have it every deal,* *whit Peter! <19> shrew* you but ye love it well *curse For if I woulde sell my *belle chose*, *beautiful thing* I coulde walk as fresh as is a rose, But I will keep it for your owen tooth. Ye be to blame, by God, I say you sooth." Such manner wordes hadde we on hand.

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1.  But, ere his hair was clipped or y-shave, There was no bond with which men might him bind; But now is he in prison in a cave, Where as they made him at the querne* grind. *mill <6> O noble Sampson, strongest of mankind! O whilom judge in glory and richess! Now may'st thou weepe with thine eyen blind, Since thou from weal art fall'n to wretchedness.
2.  Lo! he that held himselfe so cunning, And scorned them that Love's paines drien,* *suffer Was full unware that love had his dwelling Within the subtile streames* of her eyen; *rays, glances That suddenly he thought he felte dien, Right with her look, the spirit in his heart; Blessed be Love, that thus can folk convert!
3.  2. Astrolabe: "Astrelagour," "astrelabore"; a mathematical instrument for taking the altitude of the sun or stars.
4.  Thus saide the sad* folk in that city, *sedate When that the people gazed up and down; For they were glad, right for the novelty, To have a newe lady of their town. No more of this now make I mentioun, But to Griseld' again I will me dress, And tell her constancy and business.
5.   But, after all this nice* vanity, *silly They took their leave, and home they wenten all; Cressida, full of sorrowful pity, Into her chamber up went out of the hall, And on her bed she gan for dead to fall, In purpose never thennes for to rise; And thus she wrought, as I shall you devise.* *narrate
6.  Me list not of the chaff nor of the stre* *straw Make so long a tale, as of the corn. What should I tellen of the royalty Of this marriage, or which course goes beforn, Who bloweth in a trump or in an horn? The fruit of every tale is for to say; They eat and drink, and dance, and sing, and play.

应用

1.  43. Solain: single, alone; the same word originally as "sullen."
2.  35. Under his tongue a true love he bare: some sweet herb; another reading, however, is "a true love-knot," which may have been of the nature of a charm.
3.  4. Well ofter of the well than of the tun she drank: she drank water much more often than wine.
4、  And all this voice was sooth, as God is true; But now to purpose* let us turn again. *our tale <3> These merchants have done freight their shippes new, And when they have this blissful maiden seen, Home to Syria then they went full fain, And did their needes*, as they have done yore,* *business **formerly And liv'd in weal*; I can you say no more. *prosperity
5、  19. Tables Toletanes: Toledan tables; the astronomical tables composed by order Of Alphonso II, King of Castile, about 1250 and so called because they were adapted to the city of Toledo.

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网友评论(yLgYpq6r10543))

  • 龚萨 08-08

      Then pray'd him Scipio, to tell him all The way to come into that Heaven's bliss; And he said: "First know thyself immortal, And look aye busily that thou work and wiss* *guide affairs To common profit, and thou shalt not miss To come swiftly unto that place dear, That full of bliss is, and of soules clear.* *noble <6>

  • 郭一然 08-08

      And for delight, I wote never how, I fell in such a slumber and a swow, -- *swoon Not all asleep, nor fully waking, -- And in that swow me thought I hearde sing The sorry bird, the lewd cuckow;

  • 刘先裘 08-08

       38. The fieldfare visits this country only in hard wintry weather.

  • 张国清 08-08

      Not only that this world had of him awe, For losing of richess and liberty; But he made every man *reny his law.* *renounce his religion <19> Nabuchodonosor was God, said he; None other Godde should honoured be. Against his hest* there dare no wight trespace, *command Save in Bethulia, a strong city, Where Eliachim priest was of that place.

  • 黄剑陆 08-07

    {  Surely the admiration of Milton might well seem to the spirit of Chaucer to condone a much greater transgression on his domain than this verbal change -- which to both eye and ear is an unquestionable improvement on the uncouth original.

  • 潘家华 08-06

      O noble, O worthy PEDRO, <28> glory OF SPAIN, Whem Fortune held so high in majesty, Well oughte men thy piteous death complain. Out of thy land thy brother made thee flee, And after, at a siege, by subtlety, Thou wert betray'd, and led unto his tent, Where as he with his owen hand slew thee, Succeeding in thy regne* and in thy rent.** *kingdom *revenues}

  • 韩裔 08-06

      "And thereat shall the eagle be our lord, And other peers that been *of record,* *of established authority* And the cuckoo shall be *after sent;* *summoned There shall be given the judgment, Or else we shall finally *make accord.* *be reconciled*

  • 徐亚华 08-06

      And to the arbour side was adjoining This fairest tree, of which I have you told; And at the last the bird began to sing (When he had eaten what he eate wo'ld) So passing sweetly, that by many fold It was more pleasant than I could devise;* *tell, describe And, when his song was ended in this wise,

  • 郭生练 08-05

       33. Launde: plain. Compare modern English, "lawn," and French, "Landes" -- flat, bare marshy tracts in the south of France.

  • 李奋飞 08-03

    {  "That ordained is for such as them absent From Love's Court by yeares long and fele.* many I lay* my life ye shall full soon repent; *wager For Love will rive your colour, lust, and heal:* *health Eke ye must bait* on many a heavy meal: *feed *No force,* y-wis; I stirr'd you long agone *no matter* To draw to Court," quoth little Philobone.

  • 沈之沛 08-03

      22. The "caduceus."

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